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Thursday, 16 March 2017

Displaying the room temperatue in a LCD Board using the Intel galileo

We are happy to announce that the new flavor of tech is going to start from this day. Yes, we are going to share the projects made using Intel Galileo. Here in this tutorial lets start from a basic way of displaying the current room temperature in the RGB Board

So, Lets Kickstart

Skillset : Beginner
Time Required : 15 - 20 Minutes

Materials  Required:
1. Intel Galileo Gen 2 Board
2. Proper Charger or other alternate Power source for powering the Galileo Board
3. Temperature Sensor
4. RGB LCD Display
5. Base Shield
6. USB Cable
7. Connecting Wires

Software Required:
Arduino Software 1.5.3 (You can download for Windows both versions here Arduino 1.5.3 Intel Galileo for Windows

Or If you want to choose from a variety of other software packages (Please Check here)

Step 1 : Power up the Galileo Board with proper power supply and wait till the light near the USB blinks in the board(as shown in the Following Picture) before connecting the USB Cable or you may damage your Galileo Board

Though this is a basic step but a most important one.

Step 2: Connect the USB Cable to your Computer from the USB Client Port in the Galileo Board as show in Picture

Step 3: Run The Arduino 1.5.3 Software in your Computer and setup the Board to Intel Galileo Gen 2 in the Tools < Board Option and check whether the port of the connected board is shown appropriately in the Tools < Serial Port and check the box, if not checked already. (As shown in the following pictures)

Step 4:

Connect the Base shield over the Galileo Board

Step 5:

Connect the Temperature Sensor to the Base shield to Port A0 (As shown in Figure)

Step 6:

Connect the RGB LCD to the I2C Port( As shown in picture)

Step 7:

Copy Paste the following Program in the Arduino Window and hit Upload. You are done :)
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Sunday, 31 May 2015

Complete Details of Joint CSIR UGC test for J.R.F and Eligibility for Lectureship (NET) Exam 2015

Today's post is based on a high profile exam for the candidates who wish to do research jobs in India's best Scientific Laboratories and Best Educational Institutes.
This time the exam is on 21st of June 2015. Dive in for the complete Info on it !


What is CSIR JRF Exam?

It is the National Level Exam for selecting the deserving candidates to do research under the guidance of the great Scientists and the faculty members of top Educational Institutions, National Laboratories and many other Government of India recognized research Laboratories.

Where will the CSIR Fellowships or Associateships be awarded?
Universities/IITs/Post-Graduate Colleges/Government Research Establishments including those of CSIR, R&D establishments of recognized public or private sector, industrial firms and other recognized institutions

What is the Eligiblity to Apply for CSIR JRF Exam?

1. Only bonafide Indian citizens, who are residing in India can apply.

2. Candidates holding  BS-4 years program/BE/B. Tech/B. Pharma/MBBS/ Integrated BS-MS/M.Sc. or Equivalent degree/BSc (Hons) or equivalent degree holders  or students enrolled in integrated MS,Ph.D program with at least 55% marks for General & OBC(50% for SC/ST candidates, Physically and Visually handicapped candidates) can apply.

3. The maximum age limit for the JRF is 28 years and it may be relaxed up to 5 years for the candidates of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST),OBC, Female Candidates and for the Physically Challenged and Visually Challenged Candidates.

Note : 1.Candidates with bachelor’s degree, whether Science,engineering or any other discipline, will be eligible for fellowship only after getting registered/enrolled for Ph.D/integrated Ph.D. program within the validity period of two years on passing the JRF Exam
Candidate enrolled for M.Sc. or having completed 10+2+3 years of the above qualifying examination are also eligible to apply in the above subject under the Result Awaited (RA) category. 
When are the CSIR JRF Exams Conducted? 

The exams are conducted twice an year during the months of June and December
For this year 2015, exams are conducted on the below date

CSIR Exam Date 2015 - June 21st 2015
Following are the areas for which the CSIR NET Exams are conducted.

1. Chemical Sciences
2.  Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Sciences
3. Life Sciences
4. Mathematical Sciences
5. Physical Sciences
6. Engineering Sciences


Syllabus for the CSIR NET Exam 2015

1. Chemical Sciences Syllabus 
2. Earth Sciences Syllabus 
3. Life Sciences Syllabus 
4. Mathematical Sciences Syllabus 
5. Physical Sciences Syllabus
6. Engineering Sciences Syllabus PDF

Below is the detailed Syllabus for the Engineering Sciences Category


The pattern for the Single Paper MCQ test in Engineering Sciences shall be as given below:-

The MCQ test paper in Engineering Science shall carry a maximum of 200 marks. 

The duration of exam shall be three hours.

The question paper shall be divided in three parts

Part A
Part B
Part C

Part ‘A’. This part shall carry 20 questions of General Aptitude (Logical reasoning,
graphical analysis, analytical and numerical ability, quantitative comparisons, series
formation, puzzles, etc).

 Candidates shall be required to answer any 15 questions. Each
question shall be of 2 marks. Total marks allocated to this section shall be 30 out of 200.
Part ‘B’: This part shall contain 25 questions related to Mathematics and Engineering

 Candidates shall be required to answer any 20 questions. Each question shall be of
3.5 marks. Total marks allocated to this section shall be 70 out of 200.

Part ‘C’ shall contain subject related questions of the following 7 subject areas :

1. Computer Science & Information Technology
2 Electrical Science
3. Electronics
4. Materials Science
5. Fluid Mechanics
6. Solid Mechanics
7. Thermodynamics

Each subject area will have 10 questions. Candidates shall be required to answer any 20
questions out of a total of 70 questions. Each question shall be of 5 marks. The total marks
allocated to this part shall be 100 out of 200.

Negative marking for wrong answers shall be @ 25%

NB: The actual number of questions in each Part and Section to be asked and attempted may
vary from exam to exam


General aptitude with emphasis on logical reasoning, graphical analysis, analytical and
numerical ability, quantitative comparisons, series formation, puzzles, etc.


Mathematics And Engineering Aptitude

Linear Algebra

Algebra of matrices, inverse, rank, system of linear equations,symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Hermitian,skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices. eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalisation of matrices.


Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms and L'Hospital rule, Maxima and minima, Taylor's series, Newton’s method for finding roots of polynomials. Fundamental and mean value-theorems of integral calculus. Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Beta and Gamma functions, Functions of two variables, limit, continuity, partial derivatives, Euler's theorem for homogeneous functions, total derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange method of multipliers, double integrals and their applications, sequence and series, tests for convergence, power series, Fourier Series, Half range sine and cosine series. 
Complex variables

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Line integral,Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula Taylor’s and Laurent' series, Residue theorem and its applications.

Vector Calculus

Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional
derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and
Green's theorems and their applications.

Ordinary Differential

First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients, Variation of parameters method, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy-Euler's equations, power series solutions, Legendre polynomials and Bessel's functions of the first kind and their properties. Numerical solutions of first order ordinary differential equations by Euler’s and Runge-Kutta methods.


Definitions of probability and simple theorems, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem.

Solid Body Motion and Fluid Motion:

Particle dynamics; Projectiles; Rigid Body Dynamics; Lagrangian formulation; Eularian formulation; Bernoulli’s Equation; Continuity equation; Surface tension; Viscosity; Brownian Motion.


Laws of Thermodynamics; Concept of Free energy; Enthalpy, and Entropy; Equation of State; Thermodynamics relations.

Electron Transport:
Structure of atoms, Concept of energy level, Bond Theory; Definition of conduction, Semiconductor and Insulators; Diode; Half wave & Full wave rectification; Amplifiers & Oscillators; Truth Table.


Theory of Electric and Magnetic potential & field; Biot & Savart’s Law; Theory of Dipole; Theory of Oscillation of electron; Maxwell’s equations; Transmission theory; Amplitude & Frequency Modulation.


Periodic table; Properties of elements; Reaction of materials; Metals and non-Metals (Inorganic Materials), Elementary knowledge of monomeric and polymeric compounds; Organometallic compounds; Crystal structure and symmetry, Structure-property correlation-metals, ceramics, and polymers.



Basic Discrete Mathematics: Counting principles, linear recurrence, mathematical induction,
equation sets, relations and function, predicate and propositional logic.

Digital Logic:
Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits;
Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

Computer Organization and Architecture:
Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control design, Memory
interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining, Cache and main
memory, Secondary storage.

Programming and Data Structures:
Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding; Abstract data
types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps.

Analysis, Asymptotic notation, Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and average case
analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide-and conquer; Tree and graph
traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching.
Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of time and space, upper and lower bounds,
Basic concepts of complexity classes P, NP, NP-hard, NP-complete.

Operating System:
Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization, Deadlock,
CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems.

ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity
constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files, indexing, B
and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control.

Information Systems and Software Engineering:
information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process
specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design,
coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.



Electric Circuits and Fields:
Node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks, sinusoidal steady-state
analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts, ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s,
Norton’s and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two port networks, three
phase circuits, measurement of power in three phase circuits, Gauss Theorem, electric field and
potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s
laws, inductance, dielectrics , capacitance.

Electrical Machines: Magnetic circuits
Magnetic circuits, Single phase transformer- equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation
and efficiency, Three phase transformers- connections, parallel operation, auto-transformer;
energy conversion principles, DC Machines- types , starting and speed control of dc motors,
Three phase induction motors- principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed
control , Single phase induction motors, synchronous machines performance, regulation and
parallel operation of synchronous machine operating as generators, starting and speed control of
synchronous motors and its applications, servo and stepper motors.

Power Systems:
Basic power generation concepts, transmission line models and performance, cable performance,
insulation, corona and radio interference , Distribution systems, per-unit quantities, bus
impedance and admittance matrices, load flow, voltage and frequency control, power factor
correction; unbalanced analysis, symmetrical components, basic concepts of protection and
stability; Introduction to HVDC systems.

Control Systems:
Principles of feedback control, transfer function, block diagrams, steady state errors, Routh and
Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, Root loci, Lag , Lead and Lead-lag compensation; proportional,
PI, PID controllers, state space model , state transition matrix, controllability and observability.

Power Electronics and Drives:
Semiconductor Power devices - power diodes, power transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs,
MOSFETs, IGBTs – their characteristics and basic triggering circuits; diode rectifiers, thyristor
based line commutated ac to dc converters, dc to dc converters – buck, boost, buck-boost, c`uk,
flyback, forward, push-pull converters, single phase and three phase dc to ac inverters and
related pulse width modulation techniques, stability of electric drives; speed control issues of dc
motors, induction motors and synchronous motors.



Analog Circuits and Systems:
Electronic devices: characteristics and small-signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and
MOSFETs. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of BJT and
FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and
power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Op-amp circuits: voltage-to-current and current-tovoltage
converters, active filters, sinusoidal oscillators, wave-shaping circuits, effect of practical
parameters (input bias current, input offset voltage, open loop gain, input resistance, CMRR).
Electronic measurements: voltage, current, impedance, time, phase, frequency measurements,

Digital Circuits and Systems:
Boolean algebra and minimization of Boolean functions. Logic gates, TTL and CMOS IC
families. Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.
Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample-and-hold
circuits,ADCs, DACs. Microprocessors and microcontrollers: number systems, 8085 and 8051
architecture, memory, I/O interfacing, Serial and parallel communication.

Signals and Systems:
Linear time invariant systems: impulse response, transfer function and frequency response of
first- and second order systems, convolution. Random signals and noise: probability, random
variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Sampling
theorem, Discrete-time systems: impulse and frequency response, IIR and FIR filters.

Amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation, frequency and time division multiplexing.
Pulse code modulation, amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for
digital modulation. Bandwidth and SNR calculations. Information theory and channel capacity.



Atomic structure and bonding in materials. Crystal structure of materials, crystal systems, unit
cells and space lattices, miller indices of planes and directions, packing geometry in metallic,
ionic and covalent solids. Concept of amorphous, single and polycrystalline structures and their
effect on properties of materials. Imperfections in crystalline solids and their role in influencing
various properties.

Fick's laws and application of diffusion.

Metals and Alloys:
Solid solutions, solubility limit, phase rule, binary phase diagrams, intermediate phases,
intermetallic compounds, iron-iron carbide phase diagram, heat treatment of steels, cold, hot
working of metals, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstrcture, properties and
applications of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

Ceramics, Polymers, & Composites:
Structure, properties, processing and applications of ceramics. Classification, polymerization,
structure and properties, processing and applications. Properties and applications of various

Materials Characterization Tools:
X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron
microscopy, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry.

Materials Properties:
Stress-strain diagrams of metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials, modulus of elasticity, yield
strength, tensile strength, toughness, elongation, plastic deformation, viscoelasticity, hardness,
impact strength, creep, fatigue, ductile and brittle fracture.

Heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion of materials. Concept of energy band
diagram for materials - conductors, semiconductors and insulators, intrinsic and extrinsic
semiconductors, dielectric properties. Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials,
paramagnetism, diamagnetism, antiferro magnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, magnetic

Environmental Degradation:
Corrosion and oxidation of materials, prevention.



Fluid Properties:
Relation between stress and strain rate for Newtonian fluids; Buoyancy, manometry, forces on
submerged bodies.

Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluid motion, strain rate and vorticity; concept of local
and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows

Control Volume Based Analysis
Control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.
Differential equations of mass and momentum (Euler equation), Bernoulli's equation and its
applications, Concept of fluid rotation.

Potential flow:
Vorticity, Stream function and Velocity potential function; Elementary flow fields and principles
of superposition, potential flow past a circular cylinder.

Dimensional analysis:
Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, Non-dimensional numbers and their

Viscous Flows
Navier-Stokes Equations; Exact Solutions; Couette Flow, Fully-developed pipe flow,
Hydrodynamic lubrication, Basic ideas of Laminar and Turbulent flows, Prandtl-mixing length,
Friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation, Simple pipe networks.

Boundary Layer
Qualitative ideas of boundary layer, Boundary Layer Equation; Separation, Streamlined and
bluff bodies, drag and lift forces.

Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.



Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate
trusses and frames; friction; simple particle dynamics; plane kinematics and kinetics; workenergy
and impulse-momentum principles;
Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains; Mohr's circle; generalized Hooke's Law;
thermal strain.
Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; deflection of
beams (symmetric bending); Torsion in circular shafts; thin walled pressure vessels. Energy
methods (Catigliano’s theorems) for analysis.
Combined axial, bending and torsional action; Theories of failure.
Buckling of columns.
Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.



Basic Concepts:
Continuum, macroscopic approach, thermodynamic system (closed and open or control volume);
thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram, path and process;
different modes of work; Zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature; heat.

First Law of Thermodynamics:
Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, first law applied to closed systems and open systems (control
volumes), steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot theorems,
thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausius inequality and concept of entropy, principle of
increase of entropy, entropy balance for closed and open systems, exergy (availability) and
irreversibility, non-flow and flow exergy.

Properties of Pure Substances:
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases, P-V-T behaviour
of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal
and real gases, equations of state, compressibility chart.

Thermodynamic Relations:
T-ds relations, Maxwell equations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion,
adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.

Thermodynamic cycles:
Carnot vapour power cycle; simple Rankine cycle, reheat and regenerative Rankine cycle; Air
standard cycles: Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, simple Brayton cycle, Brayton cycle with regeneration,
reheat and intercooling; vapour-compression refrigeration cycle.

Ideal Gas Mixtures:
Dalton's and Amagat's laws, calculations of properties (internal energy, enthalpy, entropy), airwater
vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them.


All the very Best to Candidates! Stay Blessed! :)


Related Tags:

CSIR-UGC (NET) Exam; Junior Research Fellowship and Lectureship; Engineering Sciences Syllabus; CSIR Exam Complete Details; CSIR Exam Date June 2015

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Thursday, 28 May 2015

How to Generate the SHA-1 Fingerprint with Keytool using Command Prompt for Android Application

Keytool is a Java utility to generate private keys for signing an app. It will generate us the SHA-1 Fingerprint keys.

Steps to Generate SHA-1 Finger print in Windows Command Prompt

 1. Open your "Command Prompt Window" in the windows as an Administrator

2. Following is the generic script for getting the SHA-1 Finger Print

keytool -exportcert -alias androiddebugkey -keystore "C:\\Users\YOUR USERNAME\.android\debug.keystore" -list -v


To Customize for your needs, please follow this step. If your USERNAME in windows is "Tom" then,the code should be

keytool -exportcert -alias androiddebugkey -keystore "C:\\Users\Tom\.android\debug.keystore" -list -v

In my case, My USERNAME is "Arul Frances", so check the following Screenshot.

3. And Press Enter

4. If it prompts for a password, type android

5. Hurrah! You got your SHA-1 Fingerprint. This process will be useful for signing your apps and for creating the Client ID in Google Developers console and much more. Following is the Screenshot with SHA-1 Fingerprint (Highlighted in Red)

Hope you found this article useful. Any Queries or Issues please ping me in the comment Section. Stay Blessed! :)
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Saturday, 19 July 2014

Engine Specification for Mercedes Benz S 350 CDI - Diesel Car

Mercedes Benz which launched its Mercedes Benz S 500 V8 Petrol car this year earlier just made the market to yell a 'Wow' has now been on strike with the trending new Diesel Car, Mercedes Benz S 350 CDI .
It pretty good and sleek with striking LED Lamps and consists of big chromed Grille. Another point is to note that the Sound insulation seems great.
The aluminium is chassis is ultra light and has a long wheel base and the Air suspension is worth noting.
It also sports a pair of cameras fitted in the windscreen reads the road upto 15 metres and sends the signals to the suspension and so the Suspension system is aware of the next step to overcome the potholes or the other surfaces the car is going to encounter.
It comes with a price tag of 1.07 Crore (Indian Rupees)
Focus on to its specifications on reading further.

Specification Description
ManufacturerMercedes Benz
Engine TypeV6 [6 Cylinder] Turbo Diesel Engine(Installed at the Front), Longitudinal
Capacity2987 cc
Maximum Power190.15 kW at 3600 rpm
Maximum Torque620 Nm at 1600-2400 rpm
Type of TransmissionRear wheel Drive
Gear Box7 Speed Automatic Transmission
ConstructionFour Door Sedan, Monoque
Weight2132 Kg
Tyres245/50 R18
SuspensionFront: Independent, Four Link, Air Suspension
Rear: Independent, Multi Link, Air Suspension
Steering TypeRack and Pinion
Power Assist TypeElectro Mechanical
Turning Circle12.3 m
BrakesFront and Rear :Ventilated Discs
Brake SystemABS( Anti-lock Braking System)
Fuel SystemDiesel
Fuel Tank Capacity70 Litre
Fuel ConsumptionCity : 7.2 kpl; Highway : 11.2 kpl
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Sunday, 13 July 2014

Engine Specification For Mitsubishi Lancer Cedia (Petrol) & (Petrol/LPG) Variants

We, the Technignite will be featuring the Mitsubishi Family of automobile specifications and will proceed with further more variants in the upcoming posts.... Happy that we are Igniting...!

Mitsubishi Cedia Petrol Variant

Specification Description
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Motors, Japan & Hindustan Motors Limited,India
Engine Type 4 Cylinder , Petrol Engine
Capacity 1999 cc
Maximum Power93.35kW
Maximum Torque173 Nm
Specific Output46.6 kW/Litre
Power to Weight Ratio84.76 kW/tonne
Torque to Weight Ratio157.25 Nm/tonne

Mitsubishi Cedia Petrol/LPG Variant

The Following table shows the data with Petrol as fuel while running.
Specification Description
ManufacturerMitsubishi Motors, Japan & Hindustan Motors Limited,India
Engine Type4 Cylinder In Line, Naturally Aspirated, Front Transverse, Alloy Head and Iron Block
Bore81.5 mm
Stroke95.8 mm
Capacity1999 cc
Compression Ratio9.5 : 1
Maximum Power82kW at 5250 rpm
Maximum Torque167 Nm at 4250 rpm
Specific Output41.04 kW/Litre
Power to Weight Ratio64.1 kW/tonne
Torque to Weight Ratio130.4 Nm/tone
Valve GearSOHC, 4 Valves Per Cylinder
Fuel SystemPetrol/LPG, Sequential Multi- point LPG Injection System
Fuel Tank Capacity50 Litre
Fuel ConsumptionCity : 9.2 kpl;Highway : 12.42 kpl

The Following table shows the data for the Mitsubishi Lancer Cedia with LPG as running fuel.
Specification Description
ManufacturerMitsubishi Motors, Japan & Hindustan Motors Limited,India
Engine Type4 Cylinder In Line, Naturally Aspirated, Front Transverse, Alloy Head and Iron Block
Bore81.5 mm
Stroke95.8 mm
Capacity1999 cc
Compression Ratio9.5 : 1
Maximum Power74.6kW at 5250 rpm
Maximum Torque156.5 Nm at 4250 rpm
Specific Output41.04 kW/Litre
Power to Weight Ratio64.1 kW/tonne
Torque to Weight Ratio130.4 Nm/tone
Valve GearSOHC, 4 Valves Per Cylinder
Fuel SystemPetrol/LPG, Sequential Multi- point LPG Injection System
Fuel Tank Capacity48 Litre
Fuel ConsumptionCity : 6.4 kpl; Highway : 11.1 kpl

*Note the changes in the Maximum Power, Maximum Torque, Fuel Tank Capacity, Fuel Consumption/ Mileage taking into consideration of the fuels. (i.e) Petrol/ LPG

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Saturday, 7 June 2014

Secure way of sharing a Secret-- One Time Secret!!

Technology has been evolved to the very best of its kind by now and mainly in the field of communication, the development is marvelous but sacrifice of privacy is the cost! Dig into the article to get the trick to send the encrypted message that can be handled only by the intended recipient

With the advent of the advanced technologies of communication starting from the Telegraph, Radio, Mobile Phones, Smart Phones (indeed Blackberry, iPhone, Android) ,Video calls(Skype,Facetime), Emails , Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp etc., we are standing just an inch away from our dear ones and Business People though we are light years  (Just Kidding -- but indeed Hundreds and hundreds of miles) away.

But the notabene fact behind these communication made us lose our privacy a bit and we are the verge of the fact that we are being spied. Since  many of the servers and service providers (Not mentioning all though but some) are spying the database records of the customers to get the information they need to develop their business grow.

I am here to share a thought of a Service I recently got to know for sharing the very important messages so securely in an encrypted way and can be seen only by the recipient that will last for only a stipulated time, the ONE TIME SECRET. com website.

Lets take a deep dive to know how to send encrypted message using that.  (Seems I am sharing a secret with you!! :P )

Follow the Screenshots below or the Steps at your ease.

                                                                  Screenshot 1

Screenshot 2


1. Login to the

2. Enter the Message (Secret) you wish to convey and type a Passphrase.

3. And after clicking the Create Secret Link will generate a link.

4. You will be directed to a new page where a link is generated for you.

5. Mail that to the intended recipient and you are done.

6. If the recipient is receiving the link and types the Pass Phrase you informed them, they can see your secret message.

Note: The Message will not be displayed if Pass Phrase is wrong and the link works only once.


Happy that I boosted a Sherlock in you! Try it.

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Tuesday, 4 March 2014

Clutch Facing Materials

Clutch facing materials should have the following Properties:

  • The clutch wear depends on the rubbing speed and the intensity of pressure acting on the clutch plate.(The most recommended speed is 30 m/s and pressure intensity should not exceed 100 kPa)
  • High Coefficient of Friction
  • High resistance to Heat ( Max temperature withstanding capacity can go up to 330 Degree Celsius

What are the different types of Clutch facing Materials?

1. Leather (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.27)
2. Cork (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.32)
3. Fabric (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.4)
4. Asbestos (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.2)
5. Reybestos and Ferodo (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.35)
6. Non Asbestos (Co-efficient of Friction is 0.36)

Related Tags :

Coefficient of Friction ; Clutch Plates ; High Temperature Clutch Plates ; Clutch Facing Materials

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Monday, 3 March 2014

Chassis Specification of Traveller Sleek by FORCE Motors Limited

Manufacturer Name : FORCE MOTORS LIMITED

Model : 2008

Transmission type :

Type : Manual Transmission

Meshing type :  Synchromesh Gear Box

Speeds :  5 Forward and 1 Reverse

Rear axle : Live axle, Single wheel

Suspension Type :

Front Suspension : Parabolic Leaf Spring, Hydraulic Telescopic Shock absorbers with anti-roll bar

Rear Suspension  : Parabolic Leaf Spring, Hydraulic Telescopic Shock Absorbers

Steering :

Steering Type : Power Steering

Turning Radius : 6.5 m

Tyres : 215 / 75 R 15

Brakes :

Service Brake  : Dual Circuit, Hydraulic, vacuum - assisted

Front Brake     : 4 Piston disc Brake with wear indicator

Rear Brake      :  Duo Servo drum brake with automatic adjuster

Wheel Dimensions of Traveller Sleek  :

Wheel Base   :  3050 mm

Ground Clearance :  190  mm

Gross vehicle weight  :  2400 kg

FORCE Motors, Traveller Sleek Specification, Automobile Specification

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An enthusiastic effort to make the reliable Technical Content available for the Young Generation of Engineers!

-- Arul Frances, Admin and Author of Technical Ignite


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